Audio Video Library
General Beliefs Site Search Time Line
E-Mail Us Web Links Home
 

Most of the articles on these WebPages have been written by godly men with a central belief in the Lord Jesus Christ. However as with most of us, they may have different beliefs concerning some particular doctrines. These articles have been made available for the purpose of “gleaning the good” where good can be found. I do not necessarily endorse all that is written by others, anymore than I expect others to endorse all that I write.

Martyrs Mirror

SUMMARY OF BAPTISM IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY

The thirteenth century is commenced with the thirteenth and last Centuria, with which the Magdeburg Centuriators have concluded their Ecclesiastical History; which is, as it were, a mournful farewell air, on account of the lamentable desolation caused by the Pope of Rome, in the worship of God. Several Roman superstitions mentioned, which were commanded as solemnly as the Word of God, and are called the baptism of necessity, the baptism by women, heretics, etc.; etc.; also, how to baptize a child that is in danger of death.

Some strange passages from Thomas Aquinas, touching infant baptism; added decree of the bishops of Nemansa, as to how to deal with a child, concerning which there may be doubt of its having been baptized aright; also the formula of words to be used by the Driest over the child. Explanation hat all this was done to gain respect for infant baptism, among the common people.

Of the true baptism, and how God, in the midst of these storms, preserved His church.

The followers of the doctrine of Peter Bruis and Henry of Toulouse, who, in many respects, concurred in the belief of the Anabaptists of the present day, increase to such an extent, A. D. 1206, that in the provinces of Languedoc, Narbonne, Gascony, but few people were found who did not adhere to their doctrine; also the three articles of their doctrine against the Roman church.

The ancient Waldenses again appear, A. D. 1218, and, though excommunicated by the pope in the bull of the Lord's Supper, declare. against the swearing of oaths, taking the life of evil-doers, the faith of the Roman church, ungodly priests, the pope.

Circumstantial account, that these people, A. D. 1230, were so numerous, that one traveling from his country to Milan, could lodge every night with one of his persuasion.

The increase of the Waldenses in France and Flanders, is again stated for, A. D. 1238.

Statement, for 1242, that they not only confessed their belief with the mouth, but also suffered for:t.

Thirty-eight years after, namely, A. D. 1280, it is shown, that their doctrine had penetrated not only into Lombardy, but even into Sicily; several articles of their doctrine described in full.

Their increase in various countries of Christendom is again shown, for the year 1284, as a proof that notwithstanding the persecutions raised against them, they did not diminish.

A certain doctrine of Alexander, namely, that baptism must be administered on confession of faith; whereupon the Waldenses and Albigenses are introduced once more, for the last time, and it is stated that they considered infant baptism of no virtue.

Conclusion, being Jacob Mehrning's reply to Mellinus, respecting baptism.]

This is the century, writes Jacob Mehrning, with which the Magdeburg Centuriators have closed their church history, etc. Concerning this time they write in the preface as follows, "This is the calamitous time, in which the Roman pope exalted his might to the highest, in the occidental churches, and the Turk his power, in the Orient; where, then, the divine and pure doctrine became most abominably adulterated in every respect.

Yea, the ground of doctrine, and all external ceremonies, as well as all points of doctrine,-all these, without reservation, the Pope of Rome would have under his control; in consequence of which such a blindness and darkness arose among men, that almost all of them took upon them the yoke, submitting whatever they spoke or wrote, with more fear to the judgment of the pope, than of God Himself, or of His church. Rules were established. by which all controverted articles were

Page301

to be decided and judged; namely, the corrupted writings of the fathers, and the decrees or resolutions of councils. The Word of God entirely lost its honor, dignity and credit; yea, it was thenceforth accepted only as far as the opinion of the fathers and councils allowed. Moreover, the Word of God was no longer expounded from the Holy Scriptures, but according to the apprehension of their own imagination, etc. Besides, too much concession was made to the heathen subtleties of Aristotle; yea, with such folly, that the obscure writings of this heathen were introduced into the schools, brought into the pulpit, and mixed with the articles of faith, etc. Jac. Mehyn. Bapt. Hist., Q. 717, from Cent. Magd. X111, chap. 13.

As regards infant baptism, because the same was much contradicted, yea, utterly rejected, at this time, by the Waldenses and Albigenses, those of the Roman church, in order to provide for this, and to maintain it, ordained various things, called baptism of necessity (private baptism), baptism by women, baptism by heretics.

The Magdeburg Centuriators quote the following (chap. 6, fol. 242) from a synodal book, written jointly by some bishops, at Nemansa, A. D. 1251, "We command, that an infant, just born and in peril of death, so that it can not be brought to the priest, be baptized by the men present, whether in warm or in cold water, but with no other liquid, and this in a wooden, stone or other vessel. But if there be no men present, let the women who are there baptize the child, or even the father or the mother, in case there be no one else present, to baptize the child." Bapt. Hist., pp. 727, 728.

By these and similar means the Romanists at this time, sought to maintain the credit of infant baptism, which was greatly opposed; to which end tended also the words of Aquinas, which are as follows, "The proper administrator of baptism shall be a priest, whose province it is by virtue of 'his office, to baptize; but in cases of necessity, not only a chaplain, but also a layman, or a woman, yea, even a heathen or a heretic may baptize, if he only observes the form of the church, and purposes to do what the church does. But if a person, from necessity, is baptized by such an one, he indeed receives the sacrament, so that he need not be baptized again; but he does not receive the grace of baptism, because he is considered as not having been baptized aright," Thorn. Aquin. de Art., Fid., chap. 14, in Bapt. Hist., Q. 725.

In the same direction tends what is adduced in Cent. Magd., X111., chap. 6, fol. 242, from the above-mentioned synodal book of the bishops of Nemansa, "But," say they,"if a child, in case of necessity, has been baptized by a layman, according to the form prescribed, we command, that said child, if it survives, be brought as soon as possible to the priest, who shall diligently examine how it was baptized; and if he find that the form prescribed was not observed aright, he shall baptize the child (again), according to the form of the church. But if he doubt whether it was rightly baptized, or not, since perhaps the baptizer did not properly consider the words which he spoke in baptism, or because the bystanders were not agreed in this, or because there is no certainty whether it was baptized or not, the priest shall baptize it with these words: 'If thou art baptized, I baptize thee not again; but if thou art not baptized, I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' In such doubtful cases, however, one witness is sufficient when more can not be had." Bapt. Hist., p. 728.

Who does not see that the Roman church, when infant baptism was contradicted, endeavored by these and similar absurdities, to make it appear to the common people as though infant baptism were absolutely necessary to salvation, yea, so necessary that rather than neglect it for want of a priest, even women, yea, heathen and heretics whom they otherwise were accustomed to burn, might baptize the infants if they only observed the form of baptism employed by the church. O strange theology I Merely to maintain the error of infant baptism, many other errors were maintained.

OF THE TRUE BAPTISM

Nevertheless, in the midst of these storms and billows of antichrist, God preserved the ark of His church, so that many persons still remained, who, notwithstanding the manifold troubles and persecutions that came upon them on this account, practiced and maintained the true worship of God, particularly in opposition to infant baptism, the office of criminal authority, the swearing of oaths, and almost all other superstitions of the Roman church.

A. D. 1206.-In the beginning, yea, before the beginning of this century, and so through a number of years, the doctrine of the ancient Anabaptists increased not a little, which appeared more particularly in the year 1206, when they had so increased in many countries, that the wiles and power of the Roman church were not sufficient to bring them to apostatize, much less to exterminate them.

Concerning this, P. J. Twisek gives the following description, "The adherents of the doctrine of Peter de Bruis and Henry of Toulouse, Anabaptists, mentioned for the year 1135, which doctrine afterwards was also followed by the Waldenses (see the year 1159), multiplied so greatly about this time, namely, A. D. 1206, that few were found in the provinces of Albi, Languedoc, Narbonne, Gascony, Rouergue, and Toulouse, who did not adhere to said doctrine, notwithstanding Pope Innocent III very cruelly opposed it. See account for the year 1198.

The principal points of their doctrine, besides others, were these: 1. That the Roman church was the whore of Babylon. 2. That her polity was impure and corrupted. 3. That the mass was


Page 302

a work replete with wickedness, and instituted neither by Christ nor for His disciples. Chron. Q. 523, col. 1 and 2, from Chron. Nicol. Gill., fol. 286 Guil. Merul., fol. 798, Henr. Boxh., fol. 22.

A. D. 1218.-For this year mention is made by Sebastian Franck, of the ancient Waldenses, whom he calls by three different names. The Poor, Insabbdtati and Waldenses. However, that they together were but one people, has already been proved. Said author writes thus concerning them, "These originated A. D. 1218, under Emperor Louis IV. They are also excommunicated in the bull of the Lord's Supper, and hold

1."That men ought not to swear at all, not even to the truth.

2."That no judge, who would be a Christian may put to death any one, not even a malefactor.

3."That the pious person who holds to the faith of the Roman church, can not be saved.

4."That an ungodly priest can not consecrate.

5."That the church perished at the time of Sylvester.

6."That they are not subject, neither intend to be, to the pope or to other prelates."

Then follow several other articles of their doctrine, which, for the sake of brevity, we will pass over; for instance, that they held, "That outside of their church there was no sacrament nor baptism (which completely overthrows the infant baptism of the Roman church); that they denied purgatory; that they counted the mass, alms, and prayers for the dead of no value, yea, that they regarded them .as the inventions of priestcraft; that honoring the saints had not the slightest merit, and that they do not hear our prayers in heaven."

These and similar articles are adduced there, from Aeneas, Sylviusand other writers, as charges against the Waldenses; of which the intelligent may judge. Seb. Fr. Chron. der Rom. Kett., fol. 119, col. 4, letter P.

A. D. 1230.-It is stated that the Waldenses, whose good confession we have already shown, declared at this time in the proceedings which it seems they had against the pope, that their numbers were so great in Germany, France and Italy, and especially in Lombardy-where their teachers lived, to whom they annually sent sustenance from other countries-that any one of them traveling from his country to Milan, could lodge every night with one of his own persuasion, whom they recognized by certain marks on the door or upon the roof. P. 1. Tzcnsck, Chron., Q. 546, col. 2, from Henr. Boxh., fol. 25.

A. D. 1238.-Or about 1239, the Waldenses had thus increased in France and Flanders, that a certain Dominican monk, Robert Boulgre, sent as inquisitor by Pope Gregory IX, put to death a countless multitude of them; of which more will be said hereafter. P.1. Twisek, Chron., p. 554, col. 1.

A. D. 1242.-At this time, said people had to suffer much from popery, on account of their faith and religion, which in the bishopric of Toulouse alone, appeared in the case of about two hundred persons, who held said belief, and were called Waldenses; of whose imprisonment and death we shall speak in the future. P. I. Tzvisck, Chron., p. 557, col. 1.

A. D. 1259.-At this time, or thereabouts, Gerard Sagarellas, an Italian, but a doctor of Paris, wrote a book against the Franciscans, whereupon Bonaventura, General of the Franciscan order, replied; however, of this Gerard and his belief, as also of that of the Waldenses, we shall speak more fully hereafter. We would only stop to say that from this time on, his disciples, the Fratricelli, or Little Brothers, after the year 1285, called Dulcinists, began secretly (from fear of persecution) to hold their meetings in the mountains of Piedmont, and Novara, in Lombardy, professing the doctrine of the Waldenses. However, from the different places where they lived, they received different names; but the appellation Fratricellior Frerots, was especially given them, because they called each other brethren in Christ; nevertheless the mouths of the scorners thus spoke only the truth, since Christ Himself so called His disciples, saying, "All ye are brethren" (Matt. 23:8); and"I will declare thy name (O God) unto my brethren; in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee" (Heb. 2:12) .

A. D. 1262.-At this time the Waldenses are again mentioned, who lived in Lombardy, and in the country of Genoa, and professed a sound profession, though they were called heretics by the papists, and were oppressed and persecuted by open decrees of the Roman see; which shall be spoken of more fully elsewhere. Compare Bzov., A. D. 1262. Art. 3, ex Decret. Epist. Alexand. IV., with A. Mell., Hist., fol. 470, col. 2.

A. D. 1280.-In this year it is recorded that said people professing the above profession (namely, the Waldenses, then called Waldois, after Waldo and his adherents, were expelled from Lyons), so multiplied in Lombardy that their doctrine, having spread in Italy, penetrated even into Sicily; as is attested by the open letters emitted against them by the Emperor Frederick II.

As regards their faith, the following articles, over and above what has already been mentioned. respecting their views against infant baptism, the office of criminal authority, the swearing of oaths, etc., were laid to their charge, as can be gleaned from the writings of Reinerius, the priest: That in the matter of salvation we must believe only the holy Scriptures, and in no wise depend on men. That said Scriptures contain everything that is necessary to salvation; and that nothing is to be received but what is commanded of God. That there is but one Mediator (Christ), and, consequently, that the saints ought not to be invoked. That there is no purgatory, but that all who are justified in Christ, enter into life everlasting, and those who do not believe, shall be cast into eternal death; thus


Page 303

denying that there is still besides a third or fourth place.

They accepted and admitted but two sacraments, namely, holy baptism and the holy Supper. They said that all masses, particularly those for the dead, should be rejected; likewise all human institutions, and that they ought not to be considered necessary to salvation: They also taught that the chanting, the hours, the fasting connected with certain days, superfluous feast days, distinction of food, the many degrees and orders of priests, monks, and nuns, the benedictions and consecrations of creatures, vows, pilgrimages, in short, the vast medley of ceremonies which in the times past had been brought into vogue, ought to be abolished. They denied the supremacy of the pope, especially as exercised by him over secular government, and admitted no other degrees in church offices than bishops, teachers (then called priests), and deacons. They said that the Roman see is the true Babylon, and the pope the fountain of all misery; that the marriage of the priests (or teachers) is good, and necessary in the church; that those who hear and rightly understand the Word of God, are the true church, to which Christ has given the keys, to let the sheep in, and to drive away the wolves."Behold here," says the writer,"the sum of the doctrine of the Waldoes (or Waldenses), which was oppugned by the enemies of truth, and on account of which they, according to the testimony of their opponents, were persecuted." P. 7. Turisck, Chron., p.605, col. 2, and p. 606, col. 1, from the Staet der Kerchen, Jan. Cresp., fol. 314, 315, 316. Merul., fol. 843. Henr. Boxh., fol. 19, 25.

A. D. 1284.-At this time the Waldenses, according to Twisck, multiplied more and more in France and other countries of Christendom, though they were sought with craftiness and cruelly persecuted, and even previously every means and all diligence had been employed to utterly extirpate them; which greatly astonished certain bishops of that time, and also certain lawyers of Avignon, in certain consultations held against them, and still extant. P. J. Twisck, Chron., p. 611, col. 2.

Concerning the form or mode of baptism, Alexander* (p. 4, q. 11, m. 1), in this century, says, "Baptism shall be administered in confession of

faith in the Holy Trinity." Jac. Mehr., Bapt. Hist., p. 726.

Centurid 13, of the Magdeburg Centuriators, cap. 5, fol. 216, 217, from Cesarius, states"That the Waldenses and Albigenses rejected baptism at this time, saying that it was inefficacious and useless; which they, as Jacob Mehrning writes, understood of infant baptism, which is administered without instruction and faith; for the Waldenses had a very high regard for the baptism of -Christ, as administered according to His ordinance." Bapt. Hist., pp. 733, 734.


* We will say nothing of this Alexander, but merely speak of his doctrine. NOTE. A. D. 1287.-Probus, Bishop of Tullo, was at this time so enlightened of God that he not only opposed Pope Honorius IV, but also delivered an excellent oration, in which he freely exposed the errors of the papists. Compare Catal. Test. fol. 654, with the 13th book van den Ondergang, p. 614, col. 1.

A. D. 1299.-In the year 1299 certain Albigenses and Waldenses, called Fratricelli, or Little Brothers (of whose faith and life we have spoken elsewhere), became so odious to Boniface VIII, Pope of Rome, on account of their uprightness, which the papists called falseness, that he declared them heretics; but as we intend elsewhere to speak more fully of their belief and walk among men, we will content ourselves here with merely mentioning them; it being sufficient for us that these people and their doctrine existed until the very close of this century. See in the large Christen Martelaersboeck, edition 1619, fol. 471, from Trithem. Chron. Hirsaug.

Proceeding to the close of the century, we will close with the conclusion of Jacob Mehrning, which is a reply to A. Mellinus, who did his best to show that the Waldenses did not well accord with the Anabaptists in the article of baptism. Mehrning replies to him as follows, "Abraham Mellinus (in his large Nederlandtsch Martelaers book) dared to say: 'The Waldenses would not agree with the so-called Anabaptists in the article of infant baptism.' But the good man forgets that he himself has adduced testimonies from Bernard, Peter Cluniacensis, and from the Magdeburg Centuries,* which refute and condemn this supposed error of the ancient Waldenses, namely, that they should have believed in infant baptism."Bapt. Hist., p. 736.

AN ACCOUNT OF THOSE WHO SUFFERED IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY

SUMMARY OF THE MARTYRS IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY

[The way and entrance to the martyrs of this century is through the valleys of Albi and throughout France, England, and other countries, where the pious witnesses of Jesus laid down their lives for the evangelical truth.

From the year 1209 throughout this century, crusades are preached in the name of the pope; which were the cause of the destruction of thousands of Albigenses, who lived quietly and peaceably under certain papistic authorities; for certain reasons, however, we have not finished this account.

Remarks with eight reasons unanimously indicating the nonresistant principles of the true Albigenses; nevertheless, for important reasons, we have placed the account of their martyrdom for the


* The following words are obscure in the author; hence we experienced difficulty in translating them.-Van. Braght. 
Page 304

most part in a marginal note, for the years 1210 and 1211.

One hundred and eighty persons called Albigenses, burnt without the castle Minerve, A. D. 1210.

Sixty of those people end their lives by fire, for their faith, at Casser, about A. D. 1211.

About one hundred persons, who confessed the same doctrine, burnt alive in a tower at Cassas, about the close of A. D. 1211.

Fifty of their fellow believers likewise lose their lives by fire, at Chastelnau d'Ari, about the close of A. D. 1211.

Over four hundred persons, who professed the same profession, though called Induti, at Lavaur, or Vaurum, rather suffer themselves to be burnt to death by the terrible flames than accept the Roman faith.

ACCOUNT PROPER OF THE HOLY MARTYRS

Great persecutions of the believers, A. D. 1206. A man, at London, in England, burnt alive for the faith of the Waldenses, A. D. 1210; and twenty-four persons at Paris, in France, likewise put to death by fire, for the same religion.

In the year 1212, about one hundred persons called Waldenses, are put to death by fire at Strasburg; thirty-nine at Bingen, and eighteen at Mentz.

Account of a cruel inquisition, A. D. 1214, over the doctrine of the Waldenses; Conrad of Marpurg, the chief inquisitor, and his mode of examination with red-hot iron, as well as with hot and cold water; also, the oath which the inquisitors in the bishopric of Utrecht were wont to put to those who were then called heretics, abot A. D. 1215.

About eighty persons called Waldenses, burnt for the faith, at Strasburg; also some Christians at Toulouse, about A. D. 1215.

Gerard de la Motte, a deacon of the Christians called Albi-Waldenses, with some of his fellowbelievers, sacrificed by fire, at Borriens, A. D. 1227.

Several papal statutes and ordinances against the Waldenses, related for the year 1229.

Severe persecution, through the Inquisition, in Germany, where very many Waldenses are burnt for the faith, A. D. 1230.

Three decrees of Emperor Frederick II are successively described, for the year 1230; another severe persecution of the Anabaptistic Waldenses, in Germany, A. D. 1231.

Nineteen persons of the same profession, burnt in the bishopric of Toulouse, A. D. 1232; also, two hundred and twenty-four in a place near Toulouse, A. D. 1243; a rigorous inquisition in the aforesaid bishopric, A. D. 1251, which was carried also into the following year.

Decree of Pope Urban III against the Waldenses and Albigenses in Lombardy and about Genoa, A. D. 1262; great persecutions, about A. D. 1280, 1283, 1284.

Gerard Sagarellus burnt at Parma, A. D. 1285; Herman, Andrew, and Guillemette [Wilhelmina], exhumed, A. D. 1299. Conclusion.]

The valleys of Albi, the region around Toulouse, yea, all France, England, and other kingdoms, furnish us, during this century, many martyrs, who, though, they, with reference to the severity of their tortures, according to the flesh, were pitiable and most miserable, suffered nevertheless with good cheer, yea, with joy, in consideration of their sure hope and unshaken confidence in the Lord, as being their shield and exceeding great reward.*

As regards the persecutions that occurred in this century, against the Waldenses and Albigenses, they by far surpass all other persecutions of which we read in the preceding centuries; for it seemed now as if the very furies of hell, so to speak, had broken loose, to destroy all believers, yea, almost the whole earth.

In the years 1209-12, 1225, 1234, yea, throughout the entire thirteenth century, crusades, or socalled holy, voluntary preparations of war were preached, by order of the pope, for the extermination of the Waldenses and Albigenses, all over the world, but more particularly in the kingdom of France.

These crusades consisted in great armies of Roman Catholics, who voluntarily enlisted in this socalled holy warfare; each distinguished by a white cross on his breast, or one of white cloth sewed on his garment; on account of which crosses these armies were called Crusades.

But that they might acquit themselves the more courageously and intrepidly, in exterminating the Albigenses and Waldenses, yea, that they might suffer none of them to remain alive, but kill them by fire, sword, gallows, and other means, the pope most solemnly promised to all who by so doing should meet death, or fall by the weapons of the princes seeking to protect the Albigenses and Waldenses, full remission of all their past sins, yea, that they should straightway go to heaven.

This had the effect, that countless multitudes flocked together, as it were, to the honor of God, and for the extirpation of the so-called heresies, in order to obtain forgiveness of sins, and thus dying find salvation; and having, under certain chieftains, been formed into armies they marched forth and engaged alone in murdering, burning, desolating and tyrannizing among the Waldenses and Albigenses, sparing not even the infant in the cradle. It is impossible to relate how great a multitude of these innocent people perished, and under what severe torments, simply on account of their true faith.


* Gen. 15:1. 
Page 305

REMARKS IN REGARD TO THE DISTINCTION OF THE PEOPLE CALLED ALBIGENSES OR WALDENSES

I deem it necessary here, to insert a caution, which I desire that it be borne in mind wherever the Albigenses and Waldenses (who are introduced as witnesses of our faith) are spoken of, namely, that we here speak only of such people as, besides the confession of their and our most holy faith respecting the points necessary to salvation, were opposed to war, and willingly and patiently, as defenseless sheep of Christ appointed for the slaughter, entered the path of death through manifold torments inflicted upon them by the enemies of the faith, to the glory of God, the edification of their neighbor, and the salvation of their own souls.

It is true, that in ancient histories mention is made of people who, though improperly, were called Waldenses or Albigenses, who resisted, yea slew their enemies; but of such we do not speak here, indeed, all of whom there is reason so to think, we would positively pass by.*

It must also be observed here, that the princes who had taken the defenseless Albigenses and Waldenses under their protection, and even their soldiers, were sometimes (through sheer ignorance) called Albigenses or Waldenses, simply because they protected them. However, of these we do not here speak, but only of those who, according to their confession, lived peaceably and meekly under their protection.

That many of them dwelt, as defenseless sheep, under the government of such princes, and that on this account war was sometimes waged by their enemies against these princes, so that one had to suffer with the other, is evident from the accounts of the ancients; however, we have, to the utmost of our ability, distinguished them; so that as far as we know, not one of those whom we have mentioned as martyrs, had any part or lot with revenge, much less with war.

In addition to this, I will briefly adduce from ancient writers, for the benefit of the truth-seeking reader, several arguments, showing that the Waldenses and Albigenses dwelt defenselessly and in all quiet under the protection of their magistracies; and that in consequence of this, said magistrates were also called Waldenses and Albigenses, and war waged against them; who, when they resisted, were the cause that it was said that the Albigenses or Waldenses had resisted, yea, actually fought.

First Argument.-Abraham Mellinus, from Innocent III, epist. 84, states: That the pope, through letters, as well as legates, gave orders, throughout France, to the ecclesiastics as well as the seculars, to exterminate the Albigenses; however, Raymond, count of Toulouse had already taken upon him to defend the Albigenses. For this reason Pope Innocent


* In those times there was a sect sometimes, though improperly, called Albigenses. Their proper name, however, was"Ruptuarii' or"Routiers" • that is, desolators or rioters, because they made resistance. See 2d book of he Persecutions, fol. 460, col. 4. But of such we have purposely avoided to speak, as they do not belong here.

 

wrote to the Archbishop of Narbonne, and to other bishops, abbots, and prelates, and among these especially to Radulph, canon of Narbonne, and also to the abbots of the great valley, and of Cisteaux, that they should speak to the count and persuade him to persecute the heretics (that is, the Albigenses); but, if he should reject their counsel, that they should excommunicate him; both of which took place. Second book, fol. 449, Col. 1.

Second Argument.-Chassanion states: That shortly after the departure of the count of Toulouse and the King of Aragon, the abbot of Cisteaux, first legate of the pope, sent the bishop of Toulouse in France, to preach the crusade against Count Raymond, and to instigate the whole world against him and his country, saying that he rebelled against the (Roman Catholic) church, and protected all the heretics (namely, the Albigenses) that were within his territory. Chassan. Hist., lib. 3, cap. 10.

Third Argument.-The legate of the pope summoned Raymond, count of Toulouse, to Arles, indicating that his case (namely, his protecting the Albigenses) would be considered there. When he came, several articles by which he was to be governed were laid before him; one of which was: That he should expel from his territories all the heretics (namely, the Waldenses, who lived quietly ,and peaceably under him), together with their adherents, friends, and kindred. Also: That he should deliver up into the hands of the legate, and Count Montfort, all those whom they should name to him (namely, those who professed the same belief), that they might do with them according to their pleasure; and this within one year. Chassan., Hist. Alb., lib. 3, cap. 9, 10. A. Mell., fol. 455, Col. 1.

Fourth Argument.-Robert of Auxerre concludes his Year-book with the papal excommunication against Raymond, count of Toulouse, whose territory was given as a prey to all who wished

because he was found (says the writer) to extend favor and assistance to the heretics (the Albigenses and Waldenses), ,and was, therefore, declared a renegade of the faith and an open enemy of the (Roman) church. Chron. Altiss., A. D. 1211, Deceased A. D. 1212.

Who does not see that this Count was excommunicated simply bcause he permitted these socailed heretics, termed Albigenses and Waldenses, to live under him? on account of which his whole territory was given for a prey.

Fifth Argument.-In the year 1212 the city of Penne, or Pene, in the territory of Aix la Chapelle, was besieged by the count of Montfort; but before the enemy arrived, the governor burnt the suburb, and retreated with his people into the citadel. Finally the city was taken, and seventy soldiers who were in it ( the writer says) were hanged; but all the rest (namely, the defenseless) that maintained the error of the Albigenses, were burnt. Thuan. Hist., lib. 6, A. D. 1550. Forte ex hincentio Bello hacensi and Petro Sarn.


Page 306

From this also it certainly is more than evident that the Albigenses lived quietly under their magistrates, and offered no resistance to the enemies; hence they were not hanged, like the conquered soldiers, but burnt as heretics.

Sixth Argument.-"Thus the Count of Montfort," writes Paul Emilius,"scoured the whole country, and brought all the cities and castles, especially in Agenois and Rouergue, under his power. Not because they all held an ungodly doctrine (that is, were Albigenses), but in order that they might not be able to protect or assist the ungodly," that is, the heretics, as they called them. Hist. Gal., lib. 6, in Phill., Aug. 2.

Here it is also evident beyond contradiction, that the Albigenses who lived under those magistrates, did not only carry no arms, but also held a belief entirely different from that of their authorities; for, otherwise they would have called both by the same name, that is, ungodly, but as it is, only the Albigenses are called ungodly, while of the magistrates it is stated, that they did not hold this doctrine; although sometimes the magistrates and the subjects were called by the same name, as has been said.

Seventh Argument.-This is still more confirmed by the words with which the Dominican friars in those times were accustomed to conclude their sermons, saying, "Behold, here ye can perceive, most beloved, how great the wickedness of the heretics (the Albigenses) is, yea, what is still more, they have accepted the protection of the secular lords." hinbert. Burgund. Sean.., part 2, Serm. 64.

From this, and similar passages which we might adduce, it is sufficiently evident that not the Albigenses or Waldenses, but the magistrates under whom they lived, had recourse to arms and carried on war; hence, they do wrong, who confound the Albigenses with their magistrates, and lay, whether through ignorance or on purpose, what their magistrates did, to the charge of the Albigenses. Their own confession has already been given; in which they confess: That they follow the example of Christ, who exercised no temporal jurisdiction or dominion.

Eighth Argument.-But, for still further proof of said matter, we will add the following, contained in the Introduction to the Martyrs' Mirror, edition 1631, p. 50, col. 1, "A. D., . . . there existed in Toulouse in France, the Albigenses, so called because they arose principally in the province of Albi; otherwise they were of the same doctrine and belief as the former (the Waldenses); hence it is presumable, that they were one people notwithstanding that they are called by different names.", "Baronius writes that their belief, among other things, was: That infant baptism was not necessary to salvation; that an unworthy, sinful priest could not administer the sacrament; that no one might become a bishop, who was not blameless; that no churches ought to be erected to the honor of God or the saints; that confession (of sins) could be made to any one; that it was not lawful to swear any oath, etc.; all of which things they said could be found in the New Testament, to which alone they held." From Baron., A. D. 1176, num. 1, 2, 3.

Continuing, we find, in the afore-mentioned Introduction (sane page, col. 2), respecting their views against war, and in refutation of those who impute this to them, the following words, "For this reason we must also consider, that when we read here of the wars waged against them, and the resistance which they offered, this . . . is to be understood of the princes and magistrates who took them under their protection; as the King of Aragon, the count of Toulouse, the count of Foix, and others; further, of those who were employed under the authority of the afore-mentioned persons; but it is. neither probable nor reasonable, that such people should be counted among them, who, according to Baronius, regulated their conduct only by the New Testament, which they observed so strictly, that they would not even swear an oath, which is much less than to engage in war."

This is confirmed by what Baronius says, namely, that war was waged by the pope and his adherents, against the aforesaid princes, for the reason that the latter would not persecute the Albigenses, and expel them from their territory;'but when this was done, after the said princes had been brought into subjection, the Albigenses, he writes, soon became extinct. Bar., A. D. 1210, num. 3, and 1228, nuns,. 3.

This could not have been the case if so numerous a people had opposed their persecutors with force of arms. Introduction, page 51, col. 1.

DEMONSTRATION OF A PLAIN DISTINCTION BE TWEEN THE ALBIGENSES AND THEIR MAGIS TRATES AND FELLOW CITIZENS

The last-mentioned writer, proceeding to the violence and vexation suffered by the Albigenses from the papists-ecclesiastics as well as seculars, makes mention of Raymond, count of Toulouse, and of the count of Turenne, saying: That they went to Peter, the cardinal and legate of the pope, in order that they should kill or slay the heretics (the Albigenses), if the latter should not be converted to the Roman church through the cardinals' preaching. Having arrived at Toulouse, they made the citizens swear an oath that they would name all the Albigenses they knew. Many of them were now betrayed, and among these, also Peter Moranus, one of their principal men. When he was examined, he freely confessed his faith; and was instantly condemned as a heretic, and all his property confiscated. Introduction, p. 51, col. 1, 2, from Baron., A. D. 1178, num. 2.

NOTE.-From the afore-mentioned eight arguments, but especially from this last demonstration, it appears incontrovertibly, that a great distinction


Page 307

must be made, between the Albigenses and their magistrates, as well as the citizens among whom they lived in the cities; so that whenever resistance, war or conflict are spoken of, in which the inhabitants of this or that city or place engaged, it is to be understood throughout of the magistrates and their soldiers, who guarded said cities or places, as also, of the common citizens; but not of the true Albigenses, since these, in accordance with their faith, as has already been sufficiently stated, exercised no revenge or resistance against any one, but lived peaceably under their magistrates; to whom they also, as was proper, paid their taxes.

However, that we may not give offense to our fellow believers, if any should entertain a different opinion in regard to this matter, although it has been sufficiently explained by us, we shall adduce the principal confessors who suffered in the besieged cities for the doctrine of the Albigensian religion, not as infallible witnesses, but as incidental matters; which the kind reader will please regard as having been done by us from no other motive than Christian prudence.